Pura Besakih or Besakih Temple is a complex made up of twenty-three temples that sit on parallel ridges, located in Besakih Village, Rendang District, Karangasem Regency, Bali, Indonesia. It has stepped terraces and flights of stairs which ascend to a number of courtyards and brick gateways that in turn lead up to the main spire or Meru Structure, which is called Pura Penataran Agung. All this is aligned along a single axis and designed to lead the spiritual person upward and closer to the mountain which is considered sacred. It was certainly used as a Hindu place of worship from 1284 when the first Javanese conquerors settled in Bali. By the 15th century, Besakih had become a state temple of the powerful.
Besakih Temple is the largest temple on the island of Bali which is believed to be the Mother Earth Temple. The main temple has three Padmasana structures which are the origin or basic temple for the worship of Hindus called Tri Khayangan. Pura Tri Kahyangan etymologically comes from two words, namely “Kahyangan” which means holy place and Tri means three, and when combined it means three holy places.
With the belief that Hindus in Bali are the protectors of their territory, every village builds a Tri Khayangan temple, The names of the Three scattered temples are :
1. Pura Desa or Pura Bale Agung, is a temple where Lord Brahma resides, which functions to create the universe.
2. Puseh Temple, a place of worship or worship of Lord Vishnu in its function as the Preserver of the entire universe.
3. Pura Dalem, a place to worship or worship Lord Shiva in the form of Goddess Durga which functions as a melting pot or pralina.